त्वमादिदेवः पुरुषः पुराणस्त्वमस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम्।
वेत्तासि वेद्यं च परं च धाम त्वया ततं विश्वमनन्तरूप॥
Arjuna said “ O Lord, you are the Only One BEING eternal, all knowing and the only knowable Supreme Consciousness . You are the shelter for the Universe and you are pervading the entire Universe ”.
पितासि लोकस्य चराचरस्य त्वमस्य पूज्यश्च गुरुर्गरीयान्।
न त्वत्समोऽस्त्यभ्यधिकः कुतोऽन्यो लोकत्रयेऽप्यप्रतिम प्रभाव ॥
You are the father of the entire universe and the creation . You are the Supreme Guru and the most reverable. THERE CANNOT BE ANY ONE GREATER THAN YOU .
अदृष्टपूर्वं हृषितोऽस्मि दृष्ट्वा भयेन च प्रव्यथितं मनो मे।
तदेव मे दर्शय देवरूपं प्रसीद देवेश जगन्निवास ॥
Having seen this wonderful form of yours which I had not seen earlier in you, I am extremely happy as well as fear struck. Please assume your normal form.
Accordingly Lord God assumed the normal form of Krishna and said .
मत्कर्मकृन्मत्परमो मद्भक्तः संगवर्जितः ।
निर्वैरः सर्वभूतेषु यः स मामेति पाण्डव ॥
Arjuna, who ever surrenders ALL his actions (worldly and spiritual) to ME and remain as MY ardent devotee without any HATRED against all the living beings, such a devotee alone will reach ME.
एवं सततयुक्ता ये भक्तास्वां पर्युपासते ।
ये चाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तं तेषां के योगवित्तमाः ॥
Arjuna said “ Who is a better yogi among your devotees ? Either the one who meditates on any of your manifest form or the one who meditates on your formless, unmanifest Absolute trait ? ”.
Stanza 161 :
मय्यवेश्य मनो ये मां नित्यायुक्ता उपासते ।
श्रद्दया परयोपेतास्ते मे युक्ततमा मताः ॥
Lord Krishna said “ Whoever vests ( focusses) his mind on any of my forms (forms include his divine names and mantras pertaining to various manifest forms of the Supreme Being) with constant devotion to ME , such a person is a better yogi ( though he is devoted to the form, yet he is always aware that the Supreme Being is also formless ) ” .
[ Lord Krishna emphasizes that in this way of spiritual practise both the mind (Meditation) and the heart (feeling part i.e. devotion) go together whereby it is easier for the practitioner to strike perfect balance between the mind (intellect) and the heart (feeling) to attain EVEN state or Equanimity so that he is not carried away either by blind devotion (emotion) or by dry intellectual analysis of the Supreme Being. Devotional worship (heart – the feeling part) is as much helpful as Meditation (mind purification) in attaining yoga. Yoga is a state where there is total emotional stability of the heart and also stability of the mind, whereby a yogi is not swayed by happiness or sorrows, by being EVEN to both. Therefore, using any name of the Lord (Naama japa) in Meditation will achieve both because the name has the form familiarly know to practitioner and hence evoke feeling towards the Supreme Being ( the form that is being meditated upon) and at the same time all the layers of the mind is purified by the cosmic vibration or power of the divine name. Therefore, it is easy to bring mind and heart towards each other in the Maanasika Naama Japa or Meditation using a favourite NAME of the Supreme Being as mantra. )]
[ Perfect balance of heart (emotion) and mind (intellect) leads to wisdom (which is the fundamental trait of the higher state of consciousness. Wisdom leads to EVEN state (yoga). Therefore, it is necessary to purify intellect and emotion which are working under the influence of Karma (accumulated actions and reactions ) and Runa ( accumulated emotional debt to other souls ) respectively. ]
Stanza 162 & 163:
य़े त्वक्षरनिर्देश्यमव्यक्तं पर्युपासते ।
सर्वत्रगमचिन्त्यं च कूटस्थमचलं धृवम् ॥
संनियम्येंद्रियग्रामं सर्वत्र समबुद्धयः ।
ते प्राप्नुवन्ति मामेव सर्वभूतहिते रताः ॥
He who controls his mind, intellect and senses and focusses on my unmanifest, non changing Absolute state (formless state), and disposed off towards the wellbeing of all living beings with equanimity attitude (EVEN) towards everyone, will also attain yoga and he too will reach ME.
अव्यक्ता हि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते ॥
He who is interested in focussing on my unmanifest Absolute state (formless state) will find it difficult so long as he is strongly attached to the senses and the body, to realise MY THAT STATE.
Stanza 165 & 166 :
ये तु सर्वाणि कर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्पराः ।
अनन्येनैव योगेन मां ध्यायंत उपासते ॥
तेषामहं समुद्धर्ता मृत्युसंसारसागरात् ।
भवामि नचिरात्पार्थ मय्यावेशितचेतसाम् ॥
Whichever devotee (spiritual practitioner) surrenders all his actions to ME (with constant Meditation on ME ) , I will quickly rescue such a devotee from the cycle of birth and death ( meaning taking birth again and again in this world to work out karma and in the process once again binding himself in the karma to continue in the cycle of births and deaths ).
सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसंभवाः ।
निबद्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम् ॥
Arjuna, the indestructible soul ( Individual Being or Consciousness) is bound to this body by three traits i.e. Satwa (positive), Rajas (semi-positive or dynamic) and Thamas (negative) .
सत्त्वं सुखे संजयति रजः कर्मणि भारत ।
ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तमः प्रमादे संजयत्युत ॥
The positive trait propel one to look for happiness (worldly as well as spiritual) . The semi positive or dynamic trait instigates for action to achieve it. The negative trait mar the wisdom and make one to do wrong actions and binds the soul in karma.
ऊर्ध्वं गच्छन्ति सत्त्वस्था मध्ये तिष्ठन्ति राजसाः ।
जघन्यगुणवृत्तिस्था अधो गच्छन्ति तामसाः ॥
People with positive traits do positive actions and thereby go to higher (divine) planes of existence after death. The people with semi positive trait do good and bad actions and bind themselves in Karma and remain in this world (through the cycle of birth and death). The people with negative trait descend to the levels of animals and insects and even lower than that.
गुणानेतानतीत्य त्रीन्देही देहसमुद्भवान् ।
He who transcends these three traits ( through Meditation on ME ) will reach ME and attain salvation freeing from the cycle of birth and death ( as there is no karma left for rebirth ).
Stanza 171 :
मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्तियोगेन सेवते ।
स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान्ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥
He who meditates on ME with unflinching devotion and dedication, and serve my CAUSE ( service to humanity, following righteousness, non violence towards living beings and nature, charity etc..) will reach ME.
ब्रह्मणो हि प्रतिष्ठाहममृतस्याव्ययस्य च ।
शाश्वतस्य च धर्मस्य सुखस्यैकान्तिकस्य च ॥
I AM the home of permanency, Absolute righteousness, the undivided (the only one) and the abode of Absolute peace and bliss (the goal of life).
अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम् ।
भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥
Though I am the only one, like the sky covering everything, I appear different in the essence of every living and non living beings of the creation. I bring forth the creation as Lord Brahma ( the creator ), sustain it as Lord Vishnu ( the protector ) and dissolve it as Lord Shiva ( the dissolver ), yet I am above all these three faculties ( just as the bottom of the sea not interfering with the surface of the sea which is full of action ).
ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना ।
अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥
Some realise my true nature through Meditation, some through Jnana yoga (Intellectual analysis) and some through Action (Karma yoga – where work is worship). All are complimentary to each other in knowing ME.
(All the above three practises can be adopted by the seeker of truth simultaneously.)
Stanza 175 :
असत्यमप्रतिष्ठं ते जगदाहुरनीश्वरम् ।
अपरस्परसंभूतं किमन्यत्कामहैतुकम् ॥
People of ignorance proclaim that the creation has naturally manifested by itself and there is no such CAUSE (Supreme Being) behind it and life is only for enjoyment ( fulfilling the sensual desires ).
एतां दृष्टिमवष्टभ्य नष्टात्मानोऽल्पबुद्धयः ।
प्रभवन्त्युग्रकर्माणः क्षयाय जगतोऽहिताः ॥
With this view they develop destructive mind and become people of violence doing wrong actions causing the degeneration of the world ( contributing to the disturbance in the world ) .
Stanza 177 :
श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।
स्वभावनियतं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति कल्बिषम् ॥
Arjuna, it is better to do such ACTION which is ALIGNED to one’s NATURAL INSTINCT than doing ACTION which is not suitable to his natural instinct, however well organised the other man’s field of action is ( Paradharma ). If one does Action suitable to his natural instinct, he does not get into the bondage of karma ( because his work becomes worship for him ). ( Swadharma here means natural instinct. Action which is aligned to one’s natural instinct is such an action which is of his immense interest so that he can invest his heart, mind and soul into it and do it with best possible application, dedication and discipline and be successful .)
In this stanza Lord Krishna is reminding Arjuna of his Swadharma i.e. as a warrior it is his duty to fight the war to establish righteousness (Dharma). Also one can excel in his Action when it is suiting to his natural instinct.
This stanza does not mean that someone with natural instinct for crime should follow his instinct. Criminal instinct is not only immoral , illegal and harmful to society but also above all it is against Dharma ( righteousness ). Therefore, he should fight to overcome such a negative , harmful and spiritually downgrading instinct. Swadharma is only applicable to spiritually evolutionary instinct.
[ Intelligence is a semi-positive trait (Rajo- Guna) which can lead either towards positive or negative side of life depending on the quantum of wisdom . Wisdom is purely a divine trait and it is always evolutionary in its nature.]
Therefore , wisdom alone can guide one towards positive Swadharma.
त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन ।
निर्द्वंद्वो नित्यसत्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ॥
Arjuna, rise above the three traits namely Positive (Satva-guna), Semi-positive (Rajo-guna) and Negative (Tamo-guna) traits. Vedas (the science of creation) deal only with these three traits. When you transcend these three traits and establish in your own Self (Individual Consciousness) you will be freed from the dualities of the worldly life.
[ OM is the primordial cosmic sound from which all the Vedic hymns manifest. OM is also at the root of all the three traits from which all the living (divine, i.e. gods and goddesses, and also dark forces ) and non living creation emerge. The Vedas being sounds in their origin , deals only with the creation of all layers. The Individual Consciousness (Self) and the Supreme Being (Universal Consciousness) are beyond the cosmic sound OM (i.e. three traits) and they are in Absolute state of Tranquility ( Silence i.e. beyond sound ) and Bliss.
When one is established in his own consciousness (Self ), he is freed from the influence of these three traits and his thinking will be in accordance with the WILL of the Supreme Being , and not according to his mind tainted by the three traits. Therefore, Lord Krishna asks Arjuna to rise above the three traits putting an end to the influence of the mind (three traits), and follow the cosmic WILL of the Supreme Being .
Lord Krishna always held a flute in his hand symbolically indicating that he was not only beyond sound OM and the Vedas thereon (three traits), but also in perfect control of the sound OM (the root of the creation, along with all the living and non living beings ). ]
चेतसा सर्वकर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्परः ।
बुद्धियोगमुपाश्रित्य मच्चित्तः सततं भव ॥
Therefore, Arjuna establish your mind and intellect in the equanimity (EVEN state) through yoga (Meditation) and do your actions dedicating all of them to ME . Get up and fight the battle. [ This stanza sums up the entire message of Bhagavad-Gita. It says that we should develop EVEN or Equanimity state of mind through the practise of yoga (Meditation) and dedicate all our actions (right actions) to the Supreme Being and FIGHT THE BATTLE OF LIFE .]
कच्चिदेतच्छ्रुतं पार्थ त्वयैकाग्रेण चेतसा ।
कच्चिदज्ञानसंमोहः प्रनष्टस्ते धनंजय ॥
Arjuna, did you grasp my this advice with attention ?.
Has your ignorance which caused the grief to you gone now ?.
नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत ।
स्थितोऽस्मि गतसंदेहः करिष्ये वचनं तव ॥
Arjuna said “ ‘O’ the Supreme Lord, by your grace my ignorance is destroyed. I am enlightened. Now without any doubt I will follow your orders ”. Thus Arjuna rose up to fight his war with high morale.
The entire theme of Bhagavad-Gita can be summed up for the common man as follows :-
As far as possible develop Calm or equanimity or neutral state of mind (sama-bhava) and do your allotted or accepted duties at your work place, to your family, society and the world, with best possible application, dedication & discipline. Be compassionate to the fellow beings. Do charity. Avoid causing harm or violence to other living beings and human beings except in case of self defence or while upholding righteousness (like Arjuna the warrior). Lead life in accordance with Dharma (righteousness) and regularly meditate on the Supreme Being (God) at your convenient time. Then you are in the true path for attaining yoga. A common man cannot do anything more than this to practise Bhagavad-Gita.